is Professor Emeritus at the Centre for the Study of Social Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is one of the founders of the Centre. He went on a Fulbright Fellowship to Stanford University, USA, in 1967–68. He was Professor and Head of the Department of Sociology, Jodhpur University, and, in 1971, joined the Jawaharlal Nehru University as Professor of Sociology. He has served as Visiting Professor at universities in Europe and North America and conducted field studies in different South Asian countries. He has received several awards and academic honours from various institutions and universities.